Antioxidant activity in lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) and its inhibitory effect on activator protein-1, nuclear factor-kappa B, and mitogen-activated protein kinases activation.
Lingonberry has been shown to contain high antioxidant activity. Fruits from different cultivars of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) were evaluated for fruit quality, antioxidant activity, and anthocyanin and phenolic contents. The fruit soluble solids, titratable acids, antioxidant capacity, and anthocyanin and phenolic contents varied with cultivars. Lingonberries contain potent free radical scavenging activities for DPPH(*), ROO(*), (*)OH, and O(2)(*)(-) radicals. Pretreatment of JB6 P(+) mouse epidermal cells with lingonberry extracts produced a dose-dependent inhibition on the activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) induced by either 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet-B (UVB). Lingonberry extract blocked UVB-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling members ERK1, ERK2, p38, and MEK1/2 but not JNK. Lingonberry extract also prevented TPA-induced phosphorylation of ERK1, ERK2, and MEK1/2. Results of soft agar assays indicated that lingonberry extract suppressed TPA-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P(+) cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lingonberry extract also induced the apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells in a dose-independent manner. These results suggest that ERK1, ERK2, and MEK1/2 may be the primary targets of lingonberry that result in suppression of AP-1, NF-kappaB, and neoplastic transformation in JB6 P(+) cells and causes cancer cell death by an apoptotic mechanism in human leukemia HL-60 cells.