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Time course of pulmonary responses to inhalation of cotton dust in the guinea pig animal model.

Authors
Castranova-V; Robinson-VA; Goldsmith-WT; Phillips-NA; Afshari-A; Frazer-DG
Source
J Cotton Sci 1998 Jan; 2(1):10-16
NIOSHTIC No.
20025887
Abstract
Exposure to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) dust can result in acute pulmonary inflammation marked by elevation of neutrophils in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and activation of alveolar macrophages. Such exposure may also result in chest tightness and airway constriction. For this reason, OSHA has established a PEL of 0.2 mg/m3 for yarn manufacturing and cotton washing. This PEL is for an 8 h workday. Questions concerning an appropriate standard for extended workdays (longer than 8 h) have been raised. As an initial attempt to address this issue, we employed a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) model exposed to 1.5 mg/m3 of cotton dust for 4 to 16 h and monitored pulmonary inflammation 0 and 18 h post-exposure. Total bronchoalveolar lavage cells, leukocytes, and red blood cells increased linearly with total exposure (concentration x exposure time) both immediately and 18 h post-exposure. Macrophage activity, measured as zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence, exhibited a similar linear relationship to total exposure. These animal results suggest that the concentration-time product may be an appropriate exposure metric when evaluating the risk of acute inflammation in response to cotton dust.
Keywords
Cotton-dust; Cotton-industry; Dusts; Dust-exposure; Dust-particles; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Inhalation-studies; Organic-dusts; Exposure-levels; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Respiratory-system-disorders; Airway-obstruction; Airway-resistance
Contact
Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505
CODEN
JCOSF6
Publication Date
19980101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
vic1@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
1998
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
1
ISSN
1524-3303
NIOSH Division
HELD
Source Name
Journal of Cotton Science
State
WV
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