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Attenuation of exposure-response curves in occupational cohort studies at high exposure levels.

Authors
Stayner-L; Steenland-K; Dosemeci-M; Hertz-Picciotto-I
Source
Scand J Work, Environ & Health 2003 Aug; 29(4):317-324
NIOSHTIC No.
20025624
Abstract
Numerous occupational cohort mortality studies have observed exposure-response curves to have an increasing slope at low exposure levels that attenuates or even turns negative at high exposure levels. Examples discussed in this paper include dioxin, silica, 1,3-butadiene, cadmium, beryllium, radon daughters, diesel fumes, nickel, arsenic, and hexavalent chromium. Possible explanations for this phenomenon include (i) bias introduced by the healthy worker survivor effect, (ii) a depletion of the number of susceptible people in the population at high exposure levels, (iii) a natural limit on the relative risk for diseases with a high background rate, (iv) mismeasurement or misclassification of exposures, (v) the influence of other risk factors that vary by the level of the main exposure, and (vi) the saturation of key enzyme systems or other processes involved in the development of disease.
Keywords
Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Mortality-data; Mortality-rates; Dioxins; Silicates; Silica-dusts; Cadmium-compounds; Beryllium-compounds; Diesel-exhausts; Arsenic-compounds; Nickel-compounds; Chromium-compounds; Risk-factors; Risk-analysis; Epidemiology; Author Keywords: attenuation; discussion paper; epidemiology; exposure-response curve; flat dose-response; high exposure level; occupational cohort study
Contact
Dr Leslie T Stayner, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, C-15, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
CODEN
SWEHDO
CAS No.
7440-43-9; 7440-41-7; 7440-38-2; 7440-02-0; 7440-47-3
Publication Date
20030801
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
LStayner@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2003
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
4
ISSN
0355-3140
NIOSH Division
EID
Source Name
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health
State
OH; MD; CA
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