Tumor necrosis factor alpha and toxicology.
Luster-MI; Simeonova-PP; Gallucci-R; Matheson-J
Crit Rev Toxicol 1999 Sep; 29(5):491-511
The molecular cloning of a group of proteins, collectively referred to as cytokines, and including interleukins, chemokines, growth factors, colony stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors, has allowed for the increased understanding of the mechanisms for many disease processes as well as provided strategies for the development of novel therapies. Conceptually similar to hormones and peptides, this group of phylogenetically related molecules are also involved in various toxicological processes, including apoptosis, cell repair, and in particular inflammation. In this review, we offer a description of what many believe represents the primary regulatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha and its role in toxicological processes. For over a decade it has been suspected that this molecule helps mediate the shock state induced by bacterial endotoxin and the wasting diathesis that typifies chronic diseases. Advances in molecular biology that have provided tools to modulate TNFalpha regulation and synthesis have allowed for the identification of additional roles for TNFalpha in homeostasis, cellular damage, and repair. This review provides a brief summary of our understanding of TNFalpha biology followed by a discussion of its role in toxicological responses. This is followed by specific examples of organ-specific and tissue-specific responses to chemical damage where TNFalpha has been implicated. The review concludes with a review of its implication in human risk assessment, particularly as it relates to genetic polymorphisms of TNFalpha expression and disease susceptibility.
Tumors; Proteins; Diseases; Peptides; Hormones; Bacteria; Endotoxins; Toxicology; Molecular-biology; Risk-factors;
Author Keywords: tumor necrosis factor and toxicity; proinflammatory cytokines and chemical damage
Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
Critical Reviews in Toxicology