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Male infertility and environmental exposure to lead and cadmium.

Authors
Benoff-S; Jacob-A; Hurley-IR
Source
Hum Reprod Update 2000 Mar-Apr; 6(2):107-121
NIOSHTIC No.
20024663
Abstract
Humans are exposed occupationally and environmentally to metal aerosols including lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd2+). These toxicants accumulate in male reproductive organs. Epidemiological studies have been equivocal about effects of Pb2+ and Cd2+ on hormone concentrations, male fertility and sperm parameters. Comparison of Pb2+ and Cd2+ concentrations in fertile and infertile men are problematic. Problem areas include failure to control confounding variables, but genetic polymorphisms as in somatic diseases may modulate Pb2+ and Cd2+ damage. Multiple calcium (Ca2+) and potassium (K+) channel isoforms have been identified in human testes and spermatozoa. These Ca2+ and K+ channels are involved in early events of acrosome reactions. Ca2+ channel are susceptible to Cd2+ poisoning and K+ channels to Pb2+. These channels offer entry paths for metallic toxicants into mature spermatozoa. Ion channel polymorphisms may cause differential sensitivities to Cd2+ and Pb2+, explaining in part prospective blinded studies showing high Cd2+ in varicocele-related human infertility and high Pb2+ in unexplained infertility. In both forms of male infertility the ability to undergo an acrosome reaction decreases. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays for Ca2+ and K+ channel isoforms may identify susceptibility subgroups with lower resistance to environmental exposures.
Keywords
Fertility; Reproductive-hazards; Reproductive-system; Environmental-exposure; Lead-compounds; Cadmium-compounds; Occupational-exposure; Metal-compounds; Metals; Aerosols; Reproductive-system-disorders
CODEN
HRUPF8
CAS No.
7439-92-1; 7440-43-9
Publication Date
20000301
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
sbenoff@nshs.edu
Funding Amount
79440
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2000
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R03-OH-003584
Issue of Publication
2
ISSN
1355-4786
Priority Area
Research Tools and Approaches: Exposure Assessment Methods
Source Name
Human Reproduction Update
State
NY
Performing Organization
North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, New York
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