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Characterization of firefighter exposures during fire overhaul.

Authors
Bolstad-Johnson-DM; Burgess-JL; Crutchfield-CD; Storment-S; Gerkin-R; Wilson-JR
Source
Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 2000 Sep/Oct; 61(5):636-641
NIOSHTIC No.
20024412
Abstract
Previous studies have characterized firefighter exposures during fire suppression. However, minimal information is available regarding firefighter exposures during overhaul, when firefighters look for hidden fire inside attics, ceilings, and walls, often without respiratory protection. A comprehensive air monitoring study was conducted to characterize City of Phoenix firefighter exposures during the overhaul phase of 25 structure fires. Personal samples were collected for aldehydes; benzene; toluene; ethyl benzene; xylene; hydrochloric acid; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA); respirable dust; and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Gas analyzers were employed to continuously monitor carbon monoxide (CO), HCN, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Area samples were collected for asbestos, metals (Cd, Cr, Pb), and total dust. During overhaul the following exceeded published ceiling values: acrolein (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists [ACGIH] 0.1 ppm) at 1 fire; CO (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH] 200 ppm) at 5 fires; formaldehyde (NIOSH 0.1 ppm) at 22 fires; and glutaraldehyde (ACGIH 0.05 ppm) at 5 fires. In addition, the following exceeded published short-term exposure limit values: benzene (NIOSH 1 ppm) at two fires, NO2 (NIOSH 1 ppm) at two fires, and SO2 (ACGIH 5 ppm) at five fires. On an additive effects basis, PNA concentrations exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limits (0.1 mg/M3) for coal tar pitch volatiles at two fires. Maximum concentrations of other sampled substances were below their respective permissible exposure limits. Initial 10-min average CO concentrations did not predict concentrations of other products of combustion. The results indicate that firefighters should use respiratory protection during overhaul. In addition, these findings suggest that CO should not be used as an indicator gas for other contaminants found in this atmosphere.
Keywords
Fire-fighting; Fire-safety; Smoke-inhalation; Respirators; Respiratory-protective-equipment; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Personal-protective-equipment; Lung-function; Lung-disease; Lung-disorders; Lung; Fire-fighters; Occupational-exposure; Respiratory-protection; Aldehydes; Toluenes; Benzenes; Xylenes; Polynuclear-aromatic-hydrocarbons; Respirable-dust; Cyanides
Contact
City of Phoenix Personnel Department Safety Section, 135 North Second Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85003
CODEN
AIHAAP
CAS No.
71-43-2; 108-88-3; 100-41-4; 1330-20-7; 7647-01-0; 7446-09-5; 111-30-8
Publication Date
20000901
Document Type
Journal Article
Funding Amount
162000
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2000
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-K01-OH-000172
Issue of Publication
5
ISSN
0002-8894
Source Name
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal
State
AZ
Performing Organization
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona
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