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"Lifeguard lung": endemic granulomatous pneumonitis in an indoor swimming pool.

Authors
Rose-CS; Martyny-JW; Newman-LS; Milton-DK; King-TE; Beebe-JL; McCammon-JB; Hoffman-RE; Kreiss-K
Source
Am J Publ Health 1998 Dec; 88(12):1795-1800
NIOSHTIC No.
20023473
Abstract
Two sequential outbreaks of respiratory disease among lifeguards at an indoor swimming pool with water spray features were investigated. Questionnaires were administered to recreation center employees following each outbreak. Respondents reporting 2 or more pool-related symptoms were offered clinical evaluation, including bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy. Pool air and water were sampled for fungi, bacteria, amoebae, endotoxin, and respirable particulates. Thirty-three lifeguards had noncaseating granulomas on biopsy and/or bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytosis. Attack rates for the outbreaks were 27% and 65%. Case patients had higher cumulative hours of work and tended to work more hours per week. Analyses indicated increased levels of endotoxin in pool air and water (relative to control pools) and gram-negative bacterial colonization of water sprays. Use of water spray features generated a 5.2-fold increase in the number of respirable particles and up to an 8-fold increase in air endotoxin levels. Lifeguards in this indoor swimming pool developed granulomatous lung disease associated with endotoxin-containing respirable bioaerosols from water spray features, which ventilation system improvements did not prevent.
Keywords
Respiratory-infections; Respiratory-system-disorders; Biopsy; Water-sampling; Air-sampling; Fungi; Bacteria; Endotoxins; Respirable-dust; Particulates; Humans; Lung-disease; Microorganisms
Contact
National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA
CODEN
AJHEAA
Publication Date
19981201
Document Type
Journal Article
Fiscal Year
1999
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
12
ISSN
0090-0036
NIOSH Division
DRDS; DSHEFS
Source Name
American Journal of Public Health
State
CO; MA
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