DNA damage, DNA repair, and mutagenesis.
Encyclopedia of Cancer, 2nd Edition. Bertino JR, ed., San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2002 Jul; 2:79-87
DNA damage consists of (a) formation of carcinogen-DNA adducts and other chemical modifications of DNA bases and (b) alternations in DNA ultrastructure (DNA strand cross-links/DNA strand breaks/chromatid exchange/chromosomal loss). DNA damange can be induced by endogenous processes and by exogenous chemical and physical agents. A potential consequence of DNA damage is mutagenesis, i.e., a permanent alteration in DNA structure that produces miscopying of information during DNA replication and yields abnormal gene products (proteins). The process of carcinogenesis is considered to require mutations in multiple cricical genes, and the risk of cancer is reduced when potentially mutagenic DNA damage is removed by DNA repair.
DNA-damage; DNA-adducts; Carcinogens; Mutagenesis; Mutation; Gene-mutation; Cancer
Book or book chapter
Research Tools and Approaches: Cancer Research Methods
Encyclopedia of Cancer