Dermal exposure leading to respiratory tract sensitization and disease: a trivial or critical link?
Toxicologist 2003 Mar; 72(S-1):60
Exposure to allergens resulting in respiratory tract sensitization has classically been considered to occur by inhalation. Increasing evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies and data from animal models support the hypothesis that dermal exposure may lead to respiratory sensitization and resultant alterations in pulmonary function. Permeation studies have demonstrated the potential for proteins as well as low molecular weight chemicals to penetrate the skin and mechanistic studies have demonstrated the skin to be a permissive site for the induction of Th2 responses. Animal models have been used to demonstrate specific and non-specific increases in airway hyper-reactivity following dermal exposure to allergens. Using latex allergy, chronic beryllium disease and allergy to low molecular weight chemicals as examples, these presentations will lay the ground-work for a discussion of the relevant clinical and experimental data and the mechanistic basis for the role of skin contact in the development of respiratory sensitization. Only by understanding the mechanisms of sensitization can effective intervention strategies be implemented to protect against respiratory allergens.
Respiratory-irritants; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Dermatosis; Allergies; Hypersensitivity; Skin-absorption; Skin-exposure
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 42nd Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, Cutting-Edge Science, Networking, New Perspectives, March 9-13, 2003, Salt Lake City, Utah