Novel uses of sorbent filters to assess potential skin exposures.
Boeniger-M; Lorberau-C; Snyder-J; Thacker-R; Antonious-G; Berardinelli-S; Vo-E
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, June 1-6, 2002, San Diego, California. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2002 Jun; :44
Reported are some novel uses of reverse phase sorbent in the form of an extraction disk for various purposes related to quantifying skin exposures. NIOSH has evaluated these commercially available sorbents for field extracting foliar dislodgeable pesticide residues from leaf washes, as passive aerosol collectors for pesticides exposure studies, and as under-glove collectors for chemical permeation. In the first case, the lipophilic pesticides chlorpyriphos, malathion, and diazinon were successfully retained on and eluted from CI8 (octadecyl bonded silica) extraction disks. While leaf material did not have a measurable effect on recovery of these pesticides, wash surfactant caused an overestimate of malathion quantification. Sample recoveries in fortified field samples were lower in liquid wash samples, for diazinon (-40% bias) than in the extraction disks. Use of these disks for quantifying field residues was demonstrated to be advantageous in reducing losses during ship- ping and reducing shipping volumes, and is a viable alternative to transporting frozen liquid samples. In a second laboratory study, liquid spiking of both cotton gauze and styrene- divinyl benzene resin (XAD-2) disks was per- formed with 7 pesticides. Although recoveries were similar after storage for up to 30 days, initial exposure to elevated temperatures and humidity resulted in significant losses (>70%) from gauze for some pesticides which was not seen with the disks. In the final study, the CI8 disks were challenged against solvent breakthrough through polymer membranes used in making gloves. Appreciable amounts of methanol, acetone, trichloroethylene and toluene were detected in the disks at the instant of breakthrough detection using the ASTM F 739 method, indicating high sensitivity. Thus, this sorbent might be used for in-use testing of gloves and possibly for detecting permeation of non-volatile chemicals. These three specific examples indicate the broad potential uses of these sorbent materials for characterizing skin exposures.
Filters; Skin-exposure; Aerosols; Pesticides; Sampling; Laboratory-testing
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American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, June 1-6, 2002, San Diego, California