On April 7, 2002, a 29-year-old female volunteer fire fighter (the victim) was fatally injured when the engine in which she was riding overturned on the way to a confirmed brush fire. The victim was one of three volunteer fire fighters responding in the vehicle. The engine had just rounded a curve when it went off the road onto the shoulder, causing the driver to lose control and the engine to overturn. The driver and the front-seat passenger, who were injured, were assisted out of the engine through the windshield area and transported via ambulance to a local hospital for treatment. The victim was entrapped and had to be extricated by fire fighters. The victim was transported to a regional medical center where she was pronounced dead upon arrival. NIOSH investigators concluded that, to minimize the risk of similar incidents, fire departments should 1. develop and enforce standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the safe and prudent operation of emergency vehicles, 2. ensure that drivers of fire department vehicles receive driver training at least twice a year.