Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications. Second Edition, PA Baron, K Willeke, eds., New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001 Sep; :751-777
Bioaerosols are particles of variable biological origin, for example, pollen, fungal spores or fragments of fungal mycelium, bacterial cells and spores, viruses, protozoa, excreta or fragments of insects, skin scales or hair of mammals, or other components, residues, or products of organisms, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, that is, endotoxins, or fungal mycotoxins. Bioaerosols are ubiquitous in both indoor and outdoor air. Among all particles larger than 0.2 um in outdoor air, 30% appear to be of biological origin (Matthias-Maser and Jaenicke, 1995). Generally, the collection of bioaerosol particles utilizes the same sampling principles as those used for nonbiological aerosols. However, ensuring the survival or biological activity of the bioaerosol particles during and after collection is an important concern that differs from physical aerosol particle sampling. Furthermore, sample handling and storage, as well as the analysis of the collected biological particles, are considerably different from the procedures used in general particle sampling.