Historically, the highest rates of fatal and nonfatal injury have occurred in the mining industry. During the 85-year period from 1911 to 1995, more than 103,000 workers were fatally injured in mining. From 1911 through 1915 alone, 16,646 fatalities occurred, and the annual average fatality rate exceeded 300 per 100,000 workers. By the early 1950s, annual fatality rates in coal mining had declined to 150 per 100,000 workers, but rates increased prior to passage of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969. Similarly, fatality rates in metal and nonmetal mining fell to 66 per 100,000 workers in the early 1960s, but rose before the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 was enacted. After passage of the two Federal mine acts, mining fatality rates decreased substantially. During the 10-year period 1988 - 1997, 993 mine workers were fatally injured. The average annual mine operator fatality rate was 28.5 per 100,000 miners. Fatality rates in underground mines were higher than those in surface mines. A trend toward decreasing fatality rates with increasing mine size was observed. The types of incidents associated with the highest fatality rates were powered haulage, fall of ground from in place, and machinery. The mining industry experienced 170,635 lost-workday injury cases and 6,840,987 lost workdays (including restricted workdays) during 1988 - 1997. The average annual rate was 5.5 cases per 100 full-time workers. The average number of workdays lost per case was 40. Underground mines were associated with the highest injury rates. For example, the underground areas of coal mines accounted for 65,668 cases and an average annual rate of 11.9 cases per 100 full-time workers. The leading types of incidents associated with lost-workday cases were handling materials, slip or fall of person, powered haulage, machinery, and hand tools. Leading types of injuries associated with lost workdays included sprains to the back region, sprains to the lower extremities (primarily the knee), amputations of the arms or hands (primarily the fingers), and fractures to the lower extremities.
Occupational-accidents; Occupational-health; Occupational-safety-programs; Occupations; Safety-monitoring; Safety-research; Workplace-studies; Work-environment; Work-areas; Medical-monitoring; Mining-industry; Mortality-data; Mortality-rates; Lost-work-days; Injuries; Equipment-operators; Accident-statistics; Surveillance-programs; Coal-miners; Coal-mining; Metal-industry-workers; Stone-processing; Gravel-processing; Underground-miners; Underground-mining