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Factors affecting fumes production of an emulsion and ANFO/emulsion blends.

Authors
Rowland-JH III; Mainiero-RJ; Hurd-DA Jr.
Source
Proc 27th Conf Explos Blasting Tech, Orlando, Florida, January 28-31, 2001. Cleveland, Ohio: ISEE, 2001 Feb; 2:133-141
Link
NIOSHTIC No.
20021429
Abstract
In previous conferences the authors have reported on toxic fumes generated by the detonation of ANFO. The research reported here extends the earlier work to include an emulsion blasting agent and ANFO/emulsion blends. Explosive mixtures were shot in 4-inch Schedule 80 steel pipe (outer diameter 4.50 in (11.43 cm), inner diameter 3.83 in (9.72 cm)) in a chamber in the experimental mine at the Pittsburgh Research Laboratory (PRL). Following each shot, the fumes in the chamber were analyzed using on-line instrumentation. A major goal of the research was to gain a better understanding of the factors that lead to the generation of toxic fumes in blasting operations. Earlier studies have suggested that the high nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide concentrations in product clouds might be the result of the poor confinement provided by relatively weak ground strata or the exposure of the explosive to ground water prior to shooting the shot. Various mixtures of ANFO and emulsion were detonated in 4-inch schedule 80 steel pipe (outer diameter 4.50 in (11.43 cm), inner diameter 3.83 in (9.72 cm)) and 4-inch galvanized sheet metal pipe (outer diameter 4.0 in (10.16 cm), inner diameter 3.97 in (10.08 cm)) to evaluate the effect of confinement. Explosive mixtures were also allowed to soak in water for one to two hours, one week, one month, and two months to determine which explosive mixtures would be degraded and observe what effect this degradation had on fume production. Results indicated that the production of nitrogen dioxide increased with low confinement of the detonating explosive and with exposure of the explosive to water.
Keywords
Mining-industry; Fumes; Explosives; Explosions; Nitrogen-oxides; Nitrogen-compounds; Oxides; Nitrogen-dioxides; Nitrates; Explosive-hazards
CODEN
PCETDN
CAS No.
10102-43-9; 10102-44-0
Publication Date
20010101
Document Type
Conference/Symposia Proceedings
Fiscal Year
2001
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
ISSN
0732-619X
NIOSH Division
PRL
Source Name
Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Technique, Orlando, Florida, January 28-31, 2001
State
OH; PA; FL
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