Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications. Second Edition, PA Baron, K Willeke, eds., New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001 Sep; :779-799
Industrial hygiene can be defined as the identification, evaluation, and control of occupational health hazards. It encompasses the complete process from a hazardous material being made accessible through use or lack of containment; to control of the exposure route; through exposure and dose; and finally to health effects resulting from received dose. Exposure may be through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact, although it is the inhalation route that is of prime importance when considering aerosols. Traditionally, workplace aerosols have been categorized as fumes (fine particles and agglomerates generated through combustion and vapor condensation), smokes (solid and liquid particles arising from incomplete combustion), dusts (solid particles generated through mechanical means), sprays (liquid aerosols with relatively large particle sizes, usually produced through mechanical means), and mists (liquid aerosols with finer particles, generally produced through condensation or atomization) (Vincent, 1995). Aerosols containing biological organisms, or bioaerosols, are also considered as a seperate category, and are covered in more depth in Chapter 24. These definitions tend to be used as descriptors rather than as discrete classifications, and when considering sampling and health effects their use can be somewhat misleading. For example, a size selective sampler will not differentiate between a fume, smoke, or mist, and the distinction between health effects arising from a fume and a submicron dust can be somewhat blurred.