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Titanium, zirconium, and hafnium.

Authors
Murthy-LI; Dankovic-DA; Murthy-R
Source
Patty's toxicology, fifth edition. Bingham E, Cohrssen B, Powell CH, eds., New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000 Nov; :677-745
Link
NIOSHTIC No.
20021024
Abstract
Titanium, zirconium, and hafnium belong to the transition Group IV B elements of the periodic table. A characteristic feature of these transition elements is the ease with which they form stable complex ions. Features that contribute to this ability are favorably high charge-to-radius ratios and the availability of unfilled d orbitals. The facility in forming metallic bonds is demonstrated by the existence of a wide variety of alloys among different transition metals. Another feature of these metals is characterized by their high densities, high melting points, and low vapor pressures. Within this group, these properties tend to increase with increasing atomic weight. This chapter discusses the chemical and physical properties followed by the toxicity of each chemical and compound in three sections: Section A provides details on titanium, Section B on zirconium, and Section C on hafnium. Table 35.1 presents the atomic number, atomic weight, and natural isotopes of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium.
Keywords
Toxicology; Toxicopathology; Toxic-effects; Titanium-compounds; Zirconium-compounds; Hafnium-compounds
CAS No.
7440-32-6; 13463-67-7; 7550-45-0; 1271-19-8; 7440-67-7; 12010-33-2; 12045-64-6; 12045-28-8; 12046-91-2; 13777-25-8; 12020-14-3; 10026-11-6; 13762-26-0; 7783-64-4; 7704-99-6; 14475-63-9; 13986-26-0; 13746-89-9; 25658-42-8; 10101-52-7; 12039-90-6; 12039-15-5; 7446-31-3; 14644-61-2; 13520-92-8; 7699-43-6; 1314-23-4; 7699-43-6; 13826-66-9; 7440-58-6; 12228-27-2; 13777-22-5; 13499-05-3; 13709-52-9; 12770-26-2; 25817-87-2; 13870-13-8; 12055-23-1; 14456-34-9; 12325-59-6; 12162-21-9; 12401-56-8; 18855-94-2; 15823-43-5; 12007-23-7; 32342-52-2; 25869-93-6; 12069-85-1; 13777-23-6; 12070-08-5; 7705-07-9; 7704-98-5; 12039-13-3; 10363-61-0
Publication Date
20001106
Document Type
Book or book chapter
Editors
Bingham-E; Cohrssen-B; Powell-CH
Fiscal Year
2001
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
ISBN No.
9780471319337
NIOSH Division
EID
Source Name
Patty's toxicology. fifth edition
State
OH; NY
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