Volatile metabolites produced by Stachybotrys chartarum on rice and gypsum board.
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 20-25, 2000, Orlando, Florida. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2000 May; :30
Concerns about the adverse health effects associated with fungal exposure in homes and the workplace have increased in recent years. Cases of pulmonary hemosiderosis among infants have been attributed to exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum in water-damaged buildings. Although microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) have been used as an indicator for fungi (such as Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp.) hidden within building structures, there is little information on what MVOCs can be produced by S. chartarum. It has yet to be determined whether MVOC analysis is an appropriate measure of S. chartarum growth. In this study, MVOCs produced by three different strains of S. chartarum cultivated on two types of media - rice and gypsum board - were determined. Clean humidified air was constantly supplied to the cultures. Air samples were collected after one, two, three, four, and six weeks of cultivation using Tenax TA tubes. MVOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with thermal desorption. Dozens of volatile metabolites were detected on each culture and several compounds were found at a greater frequency throughout the experiment (e.g., methyl ester benzoic acid, 1,2-dimethoxy benzene, 3-cyclohepten-1-one, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, and 1-chlorodecane). A few unique MVOCs - those volatiles not released by building materials or other sources, such as 1-butanol, 3-methyl-2-butanol, and thujopsene - were detected in at least two cultures. When compared with our previous studies of Aspergillus spp. on gypsum board under the same experimental conditions, fewer volatiles were produced by S. chartarum. This may indicate that MVOCs produced by S. chartarum represent a relatively small fraction of the total MVOCs present in water-damaged buildings where Aspergillus spp. and other fungi usually exist.
Metabolites; Fungicides; Fungal-infections; Fungal-diseases; Fungi; Health-hazards; Exposure-levels; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Respiratory-system-disorders; Organic-compounds; Air-samples; Air-sampling; Gas-chromatography; Mass-spectrometry; Volatiles; Methyl-compounds; Benzoic-acids; Benzenes; Butanols
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American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 20-25, 2000, Orlando, Florida