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Reduction of pulmonary toxicity of Stachybotrys chartarum spores after methanol extraction of mycotoxins.

Authors
Rao-CY; Brain-JD; Burge-HA
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol 2000 Jul; 66(7):2817-2821
NIOSHTIC No.
20020788
Abstract
The fungus Stachybotrys chartarum has been implicated in cases of nonspecific indoor air quality complaints in adults and in cases of pulmonary hemorrhaging in infants. The effects that have been described have been attributed to mycotoxins. Previous dose-effect studies focused on exposure to a single mycotoxin in a solvent, a strategy which is unlikely to accurately characterize the effects of inhaled spores. In this study we examined the role of mycotoxins in the pulmonary effects caused by S. chartarum spores and the dose dependency of these effects. S. chartarum spores were extracted in methanol to reduce the mycotoxin content of the spores. Then either untreated (toxin-containing) or methanol-extracted S. chartarum spores were intratracheally instilled into male 10-week-old Charles River-Dawley rats. After 24 h, the lungs were lavaged, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed to determine differences in lactic dehydrogenase, albumin, hemoglobin, myeloperoxidase, and leukocyte differential counts. Weight change was also monitored. Our data show that methanol extraction dramatically reduced the toxicity of S. chartarum spores. No statistically significant effects were observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of the animals that were treated with methanol-extracted spores at any dose. Conversely, dose-dependent effects of the toxin-containing spores were observed when we examined the lactic dehydrogenase, albumin, and hemoglobin concentrations, the polymorphonuclear leukocyte counts, and weight loss. Our findings show that a single, intense exposure to toxin-containing S. chartarum spores results in pulmonary inflammation and injury in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the effects are related to methanol-soluble toxins in the spores.
Keywords
Mycotoxins; Air-quality; Exposure-levels; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Toxic-effects; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Respiratory-system-disorders; Microorganisms; Indoor-air-pollution; Indoor-environmental-quality
CODEN
AEMIDF
Publication Date
20000701
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
cnr3@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2000
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
7
ISSN
0099-2240
NIOSH Division
DRDS
Source Name
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
State
WV; MA
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