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Silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

Authors
Castranova-V; Vallyathan-V
Source
Environ Health Perspect 2000 Aug; 108(Suppl 4):675-684
NIOSHTIC No.
20020628
Abstract
Exposure to coal mine dust and/or crystalline silica results in pneumoconiosis with initiation and progression of pulmonary fibrosis. This review presents characteristics of simple and complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) as well as pathologic indices of acute and chronic silicosis by summarizing results of in vitro, animal, and human investigations. These results support four basic mechanisms in the etiology of CWP and silicosis: a) direct cytotoxicity of coal dust or silica, resulting in lung cell damage, release of lipases and proteases, and eventual lung scarring; b) activation of oxidant production by pulmonary phagocytes, which overwhelms the antioxidant defenses and leads to lipid peroxidation, protein nitrosation, cell injury, and lung scarring; c) activation of mediator release from alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells, which leads to recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages, resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive species and in further lung injury and scarring; d) secretion of growth factors from alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells, stimulating fibroblast proliferation and eventual scarring. Results of in vitro and animal studies provide a basis for proposing these mechanisms for the initiation and progression of pneumoconiosis. Data obtained from exposed workers lend support to these mechanisms.
Keywords
Silicosis; Pneumoconiosis; Coal-workers; Coal-miners; Coal-dust; Dust-exposure; Dust-inhalation; Dust-particles; Dusts; Occupational-exposure; Silica-dusts; Silicates; Fibrosis; Lung-fibrosis; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Respiratory-system-disorders; Lung-disease; Occupational-diseases; Respirable-dust
Contact
V. Castranova, PPRB/HELD/NIOSH, 1095 Willowdale Road, MS 2015, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
CODEN
EVHPAZ
CAS No.
14808-60-7
Publication Date
20000801
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
vic1@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2000
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
ISSN
0091-6765
NIOSH Division
HELD
Source Name
Environmental Health Perspectives
State
WV
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