A long-life coated electrode is described. Thus, pbo2 is deposited onto ti for use as an anode in the electrowinning and/or electrorefining of metals such as cu, zn, cr, CO, pb, and ni. The electrodeposition bath contains: pb2+ 200, cu(no3)2 0.1, and < 325- mesh glass beads 5 g/l and the deposition parameters were: 0.06 A/cm2 for the anode current density, 3.1 V for d.C. Potential, 4.8 V for a.C. Potential, 60 deg c for bath temperature, and a sine wave with a 60 hz frequency. The deposition required 4 h, after which the anode was tested in h2so4 (200 g/l) for 80 days at 0.054 A/cm2 and 50 deg c with an aluminum cathode. The life of these anodes was 40 days longer than pbo2-ti anodes prepared using d.C. Only.
U.S. Pat. 4,159,231; June 26, 1979; Chem. Abstr. 90:194,710H