In selecting a fuel the effects of production, processing, and utilization of each fuel on the land, water, and air must be considered. This presents a complex situation, since all the principal energy sources--coal, oil, gas, nuclear, and hydro--have differing environmental effects. The severity of the pollution tradeoffs must be evaluated and decisions made as to which fuel is likely to have the least harmful environmental impact. Two fuels management problems are particularly urgent. The first, automobile fuels, is undergoing rapid change and little can be done in the short term to replace gasoline as a fuel. The second, generation of electricity, does have much substitutability from competing energy sources. Both pose unique management problems that must be solved if the nation is to benefit from low-cost energy that is produced and used in a manner that does not further degrade the environment.
Environmental Sci. and Technol., V. 5, No. 1, January 1971, PP. 30- 38