The respirable dust standard in the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 is designed to prevent disability and death from coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Beginning June 30, 1970, the operators of coal mines were required to maintain the average concentration of respirable dust in the active workings at or below 3.0 Milligrams of dust per cubic meter of air. The standard is reduced to 2.0 Milligrams per cubic meter after Dec. 30, 1972. This paper presents the equipment and procedures used by the coal mine operators in implementing the respirable dust sampling program established by the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and shows the effect of the law, during the first year, on the reduction of dust levels in selected mines. The system employed by the Bureau of Mines for analyzing and processing the dust samples is also presented.