In the last 5 years, many mining companies and engineering firms have experimented with the construction of wetland treatment systems for acid mine drainage (AMD). Very few of the several hundred wetland systems that have been built are performing well enough to justify total abandonment of chemical treatment. Nonetheless, systems continue to be built because the mining companies have found that wetlands can reduce their AMD treatment costs. It is also their hope that further research and development will eventually result in systems that will completely replace chemical treatment and offer long-term performance at minimal cost. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has been actively involved, from a research perspective, with this approach to AMD treatment since its inception. In this paper, the status of constructed wetland technology is discussed with respect to the construction and performance of systems, chemical and biological processes that affect AMD chemistry within constructed wetlands, and the future of this technology as perceived by the Bureau of Mines.