As part of an ongoing program to develop high-quality materials with improved performance and service lives, and to conserve critical minerals, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, researchers studied the process of hot-rolling metals, alloys, and composites in vacuum. First, a comprehensive review of the literature is presented, including the advantages and disadvantages of using vacuum. Next, details of hot-rolling titanium, chromium, and molybdenum-iron bimetal are given. Finally, the design of new equipment is described. At this time, it is uncertain whether hot- rolling metals in vacuum will gain commercial acceptance in the future.