This U.S. Bureau of Mines report identifies potential causes of slip- and-fall accidents occurring during surface mine equipment maintenance and describes the relative roles of direct worker behavior and machine design. The relative roles of human behavior and machine design in the causation of slip-and-fall accidents were determined through analysis of accident records, observations of maintenance worker behavior, and evaluation of mine machinery. From these data, relative risk ratios were calculated. Behavior had a relative risk ratio of 1.5; Machine design, specifically access systems design, had a relative risk ratio of 2.2. Of the access systems, ladders had the highest relative risk ratio, 7.0. This study suggests that accident intervention would be most profitably made in improving the design of systems used to access maintenance worker areas of mining equipment.