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Structural Deformation of the Allegheny Group of Coalbeds in the Appalachian Plateau of Central Pennsylvania.

Puglio-DG; Iannacchione-AT
9th Int'l Congress of Carboniferous Stratigraphy & Geology Southern Illinois Press 1985 :739-752
According to this U.S. Bureau of Mines study, large- and small-scale structural anomalies have had both positive and negative effects upon the minability of the Freeport and Kittanning coals. Several small-scale thrust and normal faults have been encountered underground and are associated with poor roof conditions, high methane and water flow rates into mine workings, and displacements not conducive to safe and economic extraction. A large-scale strike- fault zone had both a positive and negative effect upon the minability of the Upper Freeport coal. The steep dip of coal- bearing strata associated with the strike fault complicated strip mining, but there were more reserves than expected. Nearly vertical dips on a coalbed west of the allegheny front in Pennsylvania. Were observed in a strip mine near Bolivar, Westmoreland County. The mine is working the Upper Freeport coal on the downthrown side of a northeast-southwest-trending strike-fault zone, traced for roughly 3 miles (4.8 Km) along the eastern flank of the Chestnut Ridge anticline. Coal-bearing strata dip between 12 deg and 85 deg southeast on the downthrown side of the fault; on the upthrown side, rock strata are essentially flat-lying. Local structural adjustment to the large-scale faulting resulted in at least three thrust faults in members of the Upper Freeport coal. Seven thrust faults, similar in character to those observed in the strip mine, were encountered in three underground mines (two in the Upper Freeport & one in the Lower Freeport coals) located west of the Chestnut Ridge anticline in Indiana & Armstrong Company
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OP 99-89
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9th Int'l Congress of Carboniferous Stratigraphy & Geology; Southern Illinois Press, 1985, Pp 739-752