This report by the Bureau of Mines presents several practical and inexpensive types of rock mechanics instrumentation for ground control around longwall panels. Application of these critical parameters, determined by this instrumentation, to the design and modification of rational longwall-mining systems is also discussed. In order to design or select an optimum mine structure or system, realistic and precise values of the design parameters must be determined in operating mines by (1) measuring ground stresses, (2) mining induced load transfer, and (3) strata movements as well as deformation moduli and rock strengths. Based on these parameters, rational and realistic criteria for mine design can be established by conducting case studies. It was found that several basic design parameters can be easily measured or determined in situ with simple, inexpensive, and practical instruments such as hydraulic borehole pressure cells, automatic recording convergence meters, automatic recording multiple-anchor-point extensometers, and hydraulic pressure recorders.