This paper discusses ceramic research at the Bureau of Mines from 1911 to the present. Emphasis has gradually changed over the years: from evaluating properties and processing of natural raw materials, important to the structural clay and refractory industries, to the present-day studies of synthetic raw materials for advanced ceramic composites; and from research to improve the performance of or finding substitutes for refractories requiring imported raw materials to development of advanced ceramic composites with high fracture toughness and temperature properties that could replace metals requiring critical chrome, cobalt, or manganese. Research efforts now include studies of green-body and sintered microstructures, intergranular bond phases, and processing of high- purity raw materials, all directed at producing wear- and corrosion- resistant advanced ceramic materials.
Ceramic Bull., V. 67, 1988, PP. 1345-1348