A technique was developed for sampling and analyzing airborne dusts in diesel-operated underground metal and nonmetal mines. Samples were taken using personal respirable samplers, operated as area samplers, and an 11-stage cascade impactor. Real-time particle size distribution and concentration measurements were made with a quartz crystal microbalance cascade impactor and a portable electrical aerosol analyzer. The materials characterized were minerals (by x- ray diffraction), elements (by x-ray fluorescence), particle size distribution and concentration (gravimetrically), and organic constituents (by high-performance liquid chromatography). The method was used to characterize dusts generated at the chute pulling operations on the main haulage level of an underground tungsten mine. Analysis showed that respirable dust concentration ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 Mg/m3. It consisted of silica (3% to 7%), organic constituents from diesel exhaust (0.11 to 0.31 Mg/m3 equivalent airborne concentration), and mineral dust (39% to 100%). The remainder was diesel exhaust particles. It was concluded that size selective sampling may be used to estimate the ratio of diesel exhaust to nondiesel dusts in the respirable fraction.