The objectives of this study were to evaluate existing data on low- grade domestic ores, classify the various deposits, determine applicability of promising new beneficiation technologies to these ores, review extraction processes for manganese recovery of these sources, rank the extraction process against each deposit, and examine the cost and profitability of the three most promising processes. Of the 23 districts or deposits that were investigated, 8 were identified as having recoverable resources of manganese exceeding 1 million metric tons. Based on state-of-the-art technology, 16 processes were evaluated for detailed cost evaluation studies. The three most promising processes were (1) the leute-dean ammonia-leaching process that solubilizes the manganese as a carbamate complex, (2) the nossen nitric acid process that forms a soluble manganese nitrate, and (3) the sulfur dioxide process that forms manganese sulfate for recovery. A 35-pct manganese concentrate was used for evaluation and the size of the plant was assumed at 1,000 tons per day. Of the three processes evaluated, the nossen nitric acid process appears to be the most promising for further development.