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Conventional versus developing processes of phosphatic clay disposal: a technical evaluation.

Authors
McLendon-JT; Boyle-JR Jr.; Sweeney-JW
Source
Tuscaloosa, AL: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, B 676, 1984 Jan; :1-28
Link
NIOSHTIC No.
10004094
Abstract
The proper disposition of phosphatic clays has been the subject of research and debated for years by phosphate proudcers, state and federal reserach agenices, regulatory authorities, and environmentalists. Twenty impoundment sites were investigated by the Bureau of Mines using geotechnical methods and laboratory analysis of cored samples. In addition, quasi-static cone penetrometer soundings were conducted to define clay and/or sand- clay interfaces en masse. Samples of the top, middle, and bottom hole segments were obtained at each station for laboratory studies of clay densities, pore fluids, plasticity, and mineralogical properties. The results of this study support the continued use of initial clay settling impoundments but emphasize the need for "in- line" systems to reduce the initial volumes of plant-generated phosphatic clays. The effective use of sand tailings is also encouraged to promote further consolidation of clays via self-weight stressing, sand caps.
Keywords
Clays; Tailings; Waste-disposal; Phosphate-deposits; Settling; Solid-waste-disposal
Publication Date
19840101
Document Type
IH
Fiscal Year
1984
NTIS Accession No.
PB85-117547
NTIS Price
A03
Identifying No.
B 676
NIOSH Division
TURC
Source Name
Tuscaloosa, AL: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, B 676
State
AL
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