This Bureau of Mines report presents a cost estimate of the Bayer process, which is used for virtually all cell-grade alumina production. The report will serve as a reference point to determine the economic merits of processes that have evolved from Bureau of Mines investigations on technology for producing alumina from domestic nonbauxitic raw materials. The Bayer process involves dissolving the alumina present in bauxite in a caustic solution at high temperature and pressure. After the undissolved impurities are removed, the solution is seeded to produce an alumina trihydrate precipitate. This precipitate is filtered, washed, and calcined to produce the cell-grade alumina product. This cost estimate is for a plant producing 1 million tons of alumina per year. The estimated operating cost is approximately $250 per ton of alumina.