This Bureau of Mines study identifies and examines the costs of federal, state, and local environmental protection controls on domestic phosphate rock mining. The costs include the expenditures needed to comply with government regulations and the effects that these expenditures and regulations have on supply. The study analyzes costs of environmental impact assessments, air and water quality standards, reclamation laws, potential solid waste controls, and local government restrictions. In addition, an industry survey and the Bureau's minerals availability system (mas) are used to evaluate land management policies that restrict access to phosphate resources. Conclusions drawn from these analyses confirm that (1) domestic phosphate mining has incurred substantial control costs and may be subject to significant new regulatory costs in the next several years, (2) certain environmental controls can discourage mining investment, (3) environmental policies governing land-use controls affect the disposition of sizable phosphate resources and are key determinants in the development of those resources on the federal domain, and (4) environmental costs could diminish the competitiveness of domestic producers.