The U.S. Bureau of Mines contracted a study to review the air and water monitoring requirements of five federal environmental acts (the federal water pollution control act, the safe drinking water act, the clean air act, the surface mining control and reclamation act, and the resource conservation and recovery act) and to compile information on currently available monitoring instruments. A literature review of the acts and the associated regulations was conducted to determine applicability to the mining industry as well as any air and water monitoring requirements. In addition, an industry search and literature review was performed to assess the instrumentation available to comply with the monitoring regulations. Based on this research, the instruments are classified by general applicability to air, surface water or ground water monitoring, then cataloged by monitoring parameters. A discussion is provided on recommended and innovative monitoring techniques.