Established in 1910, the Bureau of Mines under the Department of the Interior is the federal government's primary research arm in the mineral field. Since the transfer of the fossil fuels portion of the energy research program to the newly organized Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in fiscal year 1975, Bureau research has been concentrated on increasing mineral production, decreasing energy usage through more efficient processing, and decreasing material losses caused by corrosion. Concurrently, research is being addressed to improved coal-preparation techniques, especially to expanding utilization of low-grade coals and coals difficult to beneficiate, which are essential for reducing the need for petroleum and natural gas supplies and for redirecting our energy consumption. Fluctuations in the availability of foreign sources of minerals, metals, and fuels due to political and economic variability among nations have necessitated intensified investigation into coal mining, uranium-ore processing, and geothermal energy sources--three alternatives that can help alleviate the dependence of the United States on foreign sources of energy. Research 75 is the fifth in a series of annual Bureau of Mines publications highlighting significant research and mineral intelligence studies.