The applicability of borehole assaying techniques, both conventional and advanced, to orebody evaluation in the mining industry is reviewed and assessed, and the research, development, and demonstration programs necessary to apply the various logging techniques to mining are outlined. The principal method of orebody evaluation in the mining industry is coring. However, coring is costly and time-consuming, and potentially great savings can be realized if all or part of a coring program is replaced by a borehole logging suite specialized to the needs of the particular mining industry. The technology assessment and cost-benefit analysis shows neutron activation analysis in its various forms to have the highest priority for research and development as a borehole logging technique. Other techniques found to be promising include x- ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and infrared spectroscopy. Of 12 industries considered in this study, those where the need for advanced borehole logging technology is greatest are uranium, copper, gold, and iron.