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Hydrogen flare stack diffusion flames: low and high flow stabilities, burning rates, dilution limits, temperatures and wind effects.

Authors
Grumer-J; Strasser-A; Singer-JM; Gussey-PM; Rowe-VR
Source
Pittsburgh, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, RI 7457, 1970 Jan; :1-34
Link
NIOSHTIC No.
10000422
Abstract
A laboratory-scale hydrogen safety study which determined several combustion characteristics of hydrogen diffusion flames is presented. Experiments show that ambient air may enter the top of a hydrogen flare stack when the hydrogen flow is low. A new concept, supported by photographic evidence, predicts that diffusion flames burning in air on a wide, upright pipe (stack) and fed with slow, upward flows of buoyant gas will induce a downward flow of air along the walls of the pipe that can support combustion within the pipe. Predicted flamedip limits agree roughly with experimental values determined on 6-, 12-, and 18-inch-diameter stacks and increase with increasing stack diameter. Measurements were made of the limiting flow at which a hydrogen diffusion flame blows out in still air. Temperatures of larger hydrogen diffusion flames up to about 3,600 F were observed, but the most representative value appears to be about 2,600 F. It was found that crosswinds do not strip significant amounts of unburned hydrogen from its diffusion flame and that water-cooled flare stacks are not likely to be damaged when flame is blown back into them by opposing winds.
Keywords
Hydrogen; Diffusion flames; Flashback; Combustion; Burning rate; Concentration; Chimneys; Fire hazards; Explosions; Liquid rocket propellants
Publication Date
19700101
Document Type
IH; Report of Investigations
Fiscal Year
1970
NTIS Accession No.
PB-196611
NTIS Price
A04
Identifying No.
RI-7457
NIOSH Division
PRC
Source Name
Pittsburgh, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, RI 7457
State
PA
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