Application of a method for estimating day of ovulation using urinary estrogen and progesterone metabolites.
Baird-DD; McConnaughey-DR; Weinberg-CR; Musey-PI; Collins-DC; Kesner-JS; Knecht-EA; Wilcox-AJ
Epidemiology 1996 Sep; 6(5):547-550
The use of urinary estrogen and progesterone metabolite levels as a reliable indicator of day of ovulation during the human menstrual cycle was investigated. Urine samples were collected daily (first urination in the morning) from 221 women (who had ceased using contraception to become pregnant). The women recorded daily if they experienced any bleeding during the previous 24 hours. Samples were collected and data recorded for 6 months or until pregnancy was achieved, which was identified by measuring human chorionic gonadotropin in the urine samples. In total data were collected for 724 menstrual cycles. Two immunoassay procedures (radiolabeling and fluorolabeling) were used to measure urine levels of the estrogen metabolite estrone-3-glucuronide and the progesterone metabolite pregnanediol-3-glucuronide. An algorithm to identify day of luteal transition (DLT) was developed, and applied to the metabolite data from the study. DLTs were identified for 666 cycles, and confirmed in 635 of them. The authors conclude that urinary estrogen and progesterone metabolite levels are a reliable bioindicator for day of ovulation, but that data from the middle of the menstrual cycle is needed to avoid errors.
NIOSH-Author; Reproduction; Reproductive-system; Hormones; Urinalysis; Mathematical-models; Metabolites; Biological-rhythms;
Author Keywords: epidemiologic methods; ovulation; urinary estrone-3-glucuronide; urinary pregnanediol-3-glucuronide; biomarkers
Donna Day Baird, Epidemiology Branch, AJ-05, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709