Occupational Ergonomics. Theory and Applications. Bhattacharya A, McGlothlin JD, eds., New York: Marcel Dekker, 1996 Apr; :63-76
This chapter discussed some of the issues involved in the execution of mechanical motions of body segments as they involve neuromuscular components and neural events encompassing both the central and peripheral nervous systems. To ensure smooth movement, a complex system of sensory elements monitors the condition of the musculoskeletal systems measuring joint forces, muscle forces, and muscle length and provides continuous feedback to the central nervous system which then modifies the commands sent to the muscles. Major components of the neuromuscular system were discussed, including cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and subcortical centers; motor neurons; muscles; visual, vestibular, and sensory receptors; and bones, joints, tendons, and ligaments. Motor control was discussed as it relates to motor programs, reflexes, static and dynamic contractions and recruitment and rate coding. Types of movements were considered along with assessing neuromuscular function through the means of electromyography, evoked potentials, postural stability, muscular strength measurement, kinesiology, and tremor. Metabolic considerations were discussed as they relate to function of fiber types, aerobic metabolism and blood flow, anaerobic metabolism, oxygen debt, local muscle fatigue, and whole body fatigue.