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Design and conduct of occupational injury intervention studies: a review of evaluation strategies.

Authors
Zwerling-C; Daltroy-LH; Fine-LJ; Johnston-JJ; Melius-J; Silverstein-BA
Source
Am J Ind Med 1997 Aug; 32(2):164-179
NIOSHTIC No.
00238428
Abstract
Literature regarding the design, conduct, and evaluation of occupational injury intervention was reviewed. Database searches identified 38 reports and eight reviews that targeted occupational injury interventions. Engineering interventions focused on hazards associated with traumatic injury and musculoskeletal disorders and included adjustable work stations, tool redesign, and back belts. Administrative interventions consisted of organizational strategies, such as improved housekeeping practices and participative management. Personal interventions included the use of safety glasses, back belts, and training studies. Multiple interventions combined engineering, administrative, or personal interventions in multifactorial studies, such as reducing musculoskeletal load in cashiers by changing work organization and work stations. An alternative to randomized controlled studies was quasi experimental intervention studies in which a comparison group provides an estimate of what the injury rate would be without the intervention. Study design and specification of an outcome were the two most important factors in evaluating occupational injury intervention. Intermediate outcomes, defined as measurable events that occur during the causal pathway, from the intervention to the injury outcome, can be used in the evaluation of injury prevention interventions, such as implementation of safety training. Measuring a reduction in injuries was the most convincing demonstration of an intervention's effectiveness. The authors conclude that a number of strategies can improve the quality of intervention evaluations, including focus groups, researchers participating with workers, using more qualitative variables in studies, and measuring more intermediate outcomes instead of actual injuries which are rarer.
Keywords
NIOSH-Author; NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; NIOSH-Cooperative-Agreement; Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Humans; Injury-prevention; Accident-prevention; Preventive-medicine; Occupational-hazards; Safety-engineering; Traumatic-injuries;
Contact
Craig Zwerling, MD Prev Med & Environmental Hlth University of Iowa 100 Oakdale Campus, 124 Amrf Iowa City, IA 52242-5000
CODEN
AJIMD8
Publication Date
19970801
Document Type
Journal Article
Funding Amount
751370
Funding Type
Cooperative Agreement; Construction; Grant
Fiscal Year
1997
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U02-CCU-308771; Grant-Number-K01-OH-000150
Issue of Publication
2
ISSN
0271-3586
NIOSH Division
DSHEFS; DSR
Priority Area
Musculoskeletal-system-disorders
Source Name
American Journal of Industrial Medicine
State
DC; IA; MA; OH; NY; WA; WV
Performing Organization
Center to Protect Workers' Rights
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