Biological monitoring for mutagenic effects of occupational exposure to butadiene.
Ward-JB Jr.; Ammenheuser-MM; Whorton-EB Jr.; Bechtold-WE; Kelsey-KT; Legator-MS
Toxicology 1996 Oct; 113(3):84-90
Studies investigating the prevalence of lymphocyte hprt mutations in and urinary excretion of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl)butane (metabolite) by workers occupationally exposed to 1,3-butadiene (106990) (butadiene) were summarized. Twenty nonsmoking workers at a butadiene production factory at Port Neches, Texas participated. Ten employed in butadiene production units were considered to be the high exposure group and ten employed in the central control facility and in steam, power, and water utilities were considered to be the low exposure group. Nine University of Texas personnel served as controls. Industrial hygiene monitoring for butadiene was performed at the facility before and 8 months after control measures to reduce butadiene exposures were implemented. Blood and urine samples were collected at these times. Lymphocytes were harvested from blood samples and scored for mutations at the hprt locus. The urine samples were analyzed for metabolite. Environmental butadiene exposures measured originally averaged 3.5 parts per million (ppm). Exposures in the central control area averaged around 0.03ppm. After control measures to reduce fugitive emissions and leaks were implemented, butadiene exposures in the process area varied from 0.12 to 0.30ppm. The frequency of hprt mutations in the high exposure group at both times was significantly higher than in the low exposure and control groups. Urinary excretion of metabolite was significantly elevated in the high exposure group initially compared to the other groups. After implementation of the control measures, urinary excretion of metabolite was sharply reduced and did not differ significantly from that of the other groups. Preliminary results from a study of workers employed in a styrene/butadiene rubber factory indicated that workers employed in areas of the facility where high butadiene exposures, from around 0.25ppm to more than 1ppm, occurred had significantly higher levels of hprt mutations than workers in other parts of the facility. The authors conclude that the use of biomarkers such as the hprt mutant assay may be very useful in assessing occupational exposure to and establishing an appropriate occupational exposure limit for butadiene.
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Butadienes; Occupational-exposure; Biological-monitoring; Chemical-industry-workers; Blood-cells; Genotoxic-effects; Urinalysis; Industrial-hygiene; Control-methods; Metabolites; Organo-sulfur-compounds; Occupational-health
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