Biomarker research in neurotoxicology: the role of mechanistic studies to bridge the gap between the laboratory and epidemiological investigations.
Environ Health Perspect 1996 Mar; 104(Suppl 1):55-67
Using biomarkers in neurotoxicological research was discussed. The general characteristics of biomarkers were summarized. Biomarkers are generally divided into three categories, those related to exposure, effect, and host susceptibility. Some overlap occurs between these categories. Certain biomarkers of exposure, such as DNA adduction, for example, may also serve as biomarkers of effect. The rationale for using biomarkers in neurotoxicological research was considered. Biomarkers have been proposed as a means of bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological studies of neurotoxicity. Progress in this area, however, has been slow due to the complexity of the nervous system and its own distinctive peculiarities and the difficulties of developing biomarkers of effect for the nervous system. Specific biomarkers that can be used to assess exposure, effect, and susceptibility were described. Increases in erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic-acid-dehydratase and zinc-protoporphyrin following lead (7439921) exposure were mentioned as examples of biomarkers of exposure. Increases in the concentration of astrocyte specific glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein following neuronal damage have been used as biomarkers of effect following exposure to certain neurotoxicants. Increases in the level of creatine-kinase-isoenzyme-BB have been detected in the blood of boxers and head trauma patients. Genetic polymorphisms in various enzymes such as the cytochrome-P-450, glutathione- transferase, and N-acetyltransferase families have shown differing responses to neurotoxic organic compounds. Specific biomarkers that have been or have potential use in assessing the effects of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, styrene (100425), n-hexane (110543), carbon-disulfide (75150), and acrylamide (79061) were discussed.
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Grants-other; Biological-monitoring; Organic-solvents; Neurotoxicology; Biochemical-indicators; In-vivo-studies; Heavy-metals; Genetic-factors; Enzyme-complexes; Proteins; Epidemiology
Environmental Health University of Washington Dept of Environ Hlth, SC-34 Seattle, WA 98195
7439-92-1; 100-42-5; 110-54-3; 75-15-0; 79-06-1
Other Occupational Concerns; Grants-other
Environmental Health Perspectives
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington