Food Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention, I. Fruits and Vegetables. Huang M-T, ed. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, ACS Symposium Series 546, 1994 Jan; 1:272-281
The antimutagenic and antitransforming activities of chlorophyllin were investigated and compared with the antimutagenic activities of vitamin-C vitamin-E, retinol and beta-carotene. In the Ames Salmonella reverse mutation test, a concentration of 1.25 milligrams (mg) chlorophyllin per plate inhibited the mutagenicity of airborne particles (AP), cigarette smoke (CS), fried shredded pork (FSP) and fried beef (FB). Inhibitions of 92% to 98% by chlorophyllin of the mutagenicity of diesel emission particles (DEP), coal dust (CD), red grape juice (RGJ), and red wine (RW) were observed. Inhibitions of 75% to 80% by concentrations of 10mg chlorophyllin per plate were seen in the mutagenicity of tobacco snuff (TS) and chewing tobacco (CT). Concentrations of 2.5mg chlorophyllin per plate achieved inhibitions of 60% to 100% in mutagenicity of AP, CD, DEP, TS, and BP in the forward mutagen assay. Inhibition of DEP mutagenicity was not decreased by heating chlorophyllin for 10 minutes at 100 degrees- C. Reconstruction assays demonstrated that the observed inhibition of mutagenicity of test mixtures by chlorophyllin was not the result of inhibition of revertant cell divisions. At equal concentrations, retinol exhibited 50% of the inhibitory effect of chlorophyllin of the complex mixtures tested. Vitamin-E and beta-carotene inhibited less than 20% of the mutagenicity of the test mixtures, with the exception of AP, which beta-carotene inhibited by 39%. Vitamin-C inhibited none of the mutagenicities, increasing the mutagenic effect of AP by 60%. At a concentration of 150 micrograms/milliliter, chlorophyllin inhibited the transforming activities of benzo(a)pyrene (50328), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N- nitroguanidine (70257), 3-methylcholanthrene (56495), aflatoxin-B1 (1162658), 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (57976), CD, CT and TS from 61% to 99%. The authors conclude that chlorophyllin is an antigenotoxic agent, effectively inhibiting the mutagenicity of the test mixtures.