An effort was made to resolve the problem of controlling air quality in a cafeteria with smoking and nonsmoking areas. Ventilation system modifications designed to control the air quality, located at the end of the heating, ventilation, air conditioning system (HVAC), and with marginal air volume were described and extrapolated for use in controlling exposures to bioaerosols. To address the cafeteria air quality problem, ceiling egg crate grids feeding the HVAC were replaced by solid ceiling tiles so return air to the HVAC system would be accomplished through an opening to a hall. Four electrostatic air cleaners with blowers were installed below the ceiling and fed into vane diffusers in the ceiling, and the air flow direction from the diffusers was adjusted to direct the smoke laden air to wall inlets for the air cleaning units. Continuous air samples were taken by real time aerosol monitors. Prior to the installation of these controls, the mean airborne particle concentration in the cafeteria was 1.35mg/m3. This level fell to 0.29mg/m3 in the smoking area and 0.08mg/m3 in the nonsmoking area. A mathematical explanation for the effectiveness of this approach was presented and the extrapolation of these methods for use in the control of bioaerosols was described. The author concludes that the system used to control environmental tobacco smoke can also be effective in the control of bioaerosols.