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The respiratory effects of isocyanates.

Authors
Banks-DE; Balaan-MR
Source
Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Second Edition 1992 Jan; :967-986
Link
NIOSHTIC No.
00225095
Abstract
The respiratory health effects associated with isocyanate exposure were discussed. Potential workplace exposures to diisocyanates between 1972 and 1974 were estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000 persons. Production and characteristics of isocyanates and urethanes were discussed. Potential adverse respiratory tract effects associated with isocyanate exposure include acute or long lasting effects due to a single episode of overexposure, chronic respiratory effects caused by long term low level exposure, occupational asthma, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Adverse health effects of isocyanates and clinical features of isocyanate induced asthma were presented with particular emphasis on toluene- diisocyanate (584849) (TDI) and methylene-diphenyl-diisocyanate (MDI). Two apparent predisposing factors to isocyanate induced asthma are frequent exposure to large spills of isocyanate and upper respiratory tract infections. Airway hyperresponsiveness to isocyanates may begin with the small airways. Once a worker has become sensitized, airway inflammation appears to play an important role in maintaining the bronchospastic response following repeat exposure to the sensitizing agent. A series of longitudinal surveys describing the respiratory health of employees at two polyurethane foam manufacturers using TDI were reviewed. Sufficient evidence exists that the current standard of the ceiling isocyanate exposures of 0.020 parts per million (ppm) is inadequate to protect all workers' respiratory health.
Keywords
NIOSH-Cooperative-Agreement; Occupational-exposure; Respiratory-system-disorders; Lung-function; Automotive-industry; Synthetic-rubber-manufacturing; Chemical-manufacturing-industry; Lung-irritants; Bronchial-asthma; Occupational-respiratory-disease; Cyanide-compounds; Cyanates
CAS No.
584-84-9
Publication Date
19920101
Document Type
Book or book chapter
Editors
Rom-WN
Funding Amount
2937066
Funding Type
Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
1992
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
ISBN No.
0316755672
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U60-CCU-306149
NIOSH Division
DRDS; OECSP
Priority Area
Pulmonary-system-disorders
Source Name
Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Second Edition
State
WV; DC
Performing Organization
Center to Protect Workers' Rights
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