An estimated 17 American workers die each day during work; an additional 137 workers die from workplace diseases. To determine the causes of work related diseases and injuries and to develop new ways to prevent workplace hazards, NIOSH was established by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. NIOSH differs from OSHA, which was created by the same act, in that OSHA operates within the Department of Labor and is responsible for creating and enforcing workplace safety and health regulations. NIOSH, operating within the Department of Health and Human Services, is responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work related illnesses and injuries. Some of the tasks undertaken by NIOSH included: investigating potentially hazardous working conditions; evaluating hazards in the workplace ranging from chemicals to machinery; creating and disseminating methods for preventing disease, injury, and disability; conducting research and providing scientifically valid recommendations for protecting workers; and providing education and training to individuals preparing for or actively working in the field of occupational safety and health. Areas of NIOSH research of recent concern that were discussed included: cumulative trauma disorders, disability among farmers and construction workers, indoor environmental quality, lead (7439921) poisoning, stress, violence against workers, and work related infectious disease.