The adverse health effects of worker exposures in the rubber products industry were summarized. Cancer has been the chronic disease most frequently reported in cohort studies of rubber products workers. Increased risks of bladder cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, hematopoietic cancer and other cancers have been associated with rubber industry work in some studies. Other hazards have included respiratory effects, dermatologic effects, reproductive effects, injuries, and repetitive trauma disorders. The risks for cancer and other diseases were not clear due to the lack of substantial epidemiologic and industrial hygiene research in the past decade. Additives used in the rubber manufacturing process included accelerators, antioxidants, antiozonants, antitack agents, chemical byproducts, curing fumes, extenders, fillers, oils, organic vulcanizers, pigment blends, plasticizers, reinforcing agents, resins and solvents. Research needs include an evaluation of hazardous exposures, assessment of control measures, epidemiology studies, collection of injury data, evaluation of health and safety programs, and the identification of compounds or groups of substances.