Occupational low back pain was reviewed. Low back pain, low back disability, and low back compensation were defined. Causes of low back pain have been reported to include lumbosacral strain and sprain, postural low back pain, muscular insufficiency, sacroiliitis, annular tears, bulging disc, and degenerative spinal disease; however, the relationship between low back pain and many of these conditions remained controversial. Occupational risk factors for low back pain have included heavy physical work, lifting, twisting, prolonged sitting or standing, and accidents, while personal risk factors have included age, gender, anthropometry, physical fitness and training, lumbar mobility, strength, medical history, years of employment, smoking, psychosocial factors, and structural abnormalities. A summary and discussion of each of these risk factors was presented.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. Ergonomics: Low-back Pain, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, and Upper Extremity Disorders in the Workplace