The determination and quantitation of three vanadium oxides in airborne dusts by membrane filter collection and X-ray diffraction were described. Usable X-ray diffraction lines were established for vanadium-pentaoxide (1314621) (V2O5), vanadium-trioxide (1314347) (V2O3), and ammonium-metavanadate (7803556) (NH4VO3). Standard vanadium oxide samples were prepared by spiking silver filters with known amounts of analyte. Generated samples of all three oxides were prepared using an eight sample generation system. Mine dust matrix samples were spiked with specific amounts of mine dust and of analyte, and subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Five diffraction lines of analytical quality were established for V2O5. The generated samples of V2O5 in this method had an analytical range of 170 to 2300 micrograms per filter with an overall precision of 8.25%, and a bias of 10.1%. X-ray diffraction analysis of V2O3 revealed six lines of potential analytical quality. The generated samples of V2O3 in this method had an analytical range of 64.5 to 625 micrograms per filter with an overall precision of 14.7%, and a bias of -10.1%. Seven potentially useful analytical lines for NH4VO3 were found, but only two were utilized. The method provided an overall analytical range of 21 to 225 micrograms per filter with an overall precision of 26.3%, and a bias of -10.2%. The recommended analytical lines for vanadium oxide quantitation avoid common interferences and particle size effects on diffraction line intensity.