Engineering controls, good work practices, and personal protective equipment recommended for controlling exposures to dimethylformamide (68122) (DMF) by inhalation and skin contact were described. NIOSH requested that these recommendations be brought to the attention of workers, supervisors and managers to reduce the health risks to exposed workers. NIOSH and OSHA exposure limits were set at 10 parts per million as an 8 hour time weighted average. DMF may be absorbed through the skin, inhaled or ingested. DMF has toxic effects on the liver, and may be responsible for the induction of testicular tumors, cancer of the mouth or throat, and prostate cancer as evidenced in several studies of workers exposed to various substances, including DMF. Animal studies failed to establish a link between DMF and cancer. Other health effects known to result from exposure to DMF include skin problems and alcohol intolerance. Reproductive effects in humans have not been adequately studied but animal studies have produced malformations in the offspring of mice and rabbits exposed to DMF. Studies on mutagenicity are unclear. Workers have reported weakness, dizziness, headache, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and constipation following exposure to DMF.